Frequently Asked Questions

From Technical to non-Technical

Frequently Asked Questions

01. O-RAN Q&A

Q1. Which components and interfaces in the O-RAN architecture are supported?

BubbleRAN O-RAN compliant stack includes:

  1. O-RAN Interfaces: E2AP v2/3, A1AP v1.x, O1. R1 is implemented as a mirror of A1AP.
  2. O-RAN Service Models: Key performance measurement v2/3, RAN Control v1.x, and Cell Configuration and Control v3.x
  3. O-Cloud: Scalability (128 Compute nodes), synchronization, auto-device discovery, optimized data plane, and eBPF Observability
  4. MX-RIC: Near-RT RIC, Non-RT RIC, and an ecosystem of of xApps and rApps
  5. MX-Operator: SMO/OAM, Observability Stack, FCAPS, Network Slicing, Intent Operator
  6. MX-Hub: Artifact registry with images, software packages, deployment blueprints
  7. MX-Data: Multi-source data lake with metrics and stats from Infrastructure, 5G RAN and CN, and Energy footprints

Note: BubbleRAN O-RAN Stack is all implemented in house. It features cloud-native and can be deployed both in the private and public clouds. For example you can deploy it on Google K8s Engine (GKE)!

Q2. What are the capabilities of the Near-RT RIC?

xApp features and supported service models are shown in the figure below.


  1. O-RAN E2SM: Key performance measurement v2/3, RAN Control v1.x, and Cell Configuration and Control v3.x
  2. BubbleRAN E2SM: MAC, RLC, PDCP, NGAP, Slice Control, and Traffic Control.

Q3. What are the capabilities of the Non-RT RIC?

  1. FlexPolicy: Policy Job defines different control actions and policies to be applied on a selected set of E2 nodes, an evolution of the A1-P service. Use cases include load-balancing.

  2. FlexMon: Monitoring Job defines programmable monitoring targeting selected E2 nodes with post-processing and metric selection exported to Timescale Database (TSDB) compatible with Prometheus and Grafana.

Q4. What are the capabilities of the SMO?

  1. Full Day-0, Day-1, Day-2 Level-5 Autopilot. Refer to the list of capabilities here
  2. Slice definition, assignment, and scaling
  3. Multiple interfaces support for the RAN and CN
  4. Full scheduling control on the container placement
  5. DNS scoping and Edge services
  6. High scalability with minimum deployment time (E2E less than a minute)
  7. Reconfiguration and full-stack observability
  8. Full customization and extensibility for both the Manager and Operators
  9. Fully cloud-native with non-privileged containers supporting both private (on-premise) and public cloud providers
  10. Automatic device discovery and mapping for GPUs, SDRs, RRHs, etc.
  11. Network terminal management
  12. Application in the loop
  13. Idempotent and declarative logic design

Q5. Does MX-Operator support external workloads, such as a NF, outside of the cluster?

Yes. MX-Operator fully supports external interfaces and each of the NFs could be adjusted/configured to connect externally (as clients) or listen for external connection (as servers). In addition, we support external DNS entries. MX-Operator also support hybrid cloud deployment where different NFs are deployed in different clouds.

Q5. What are the current supported use-cases per service model?

  1. KPM: Performance Monitoring, Data-set collections, Load Distribution, Congestion Detection
  2. RC: Mobility management (HO), RAN Slicing, Load Balancing, QoS Control, Energy Management, Cell Management
  3. CCC: BWP reconfiguration, Frequency reconfiguration
  4. Mac/RLC/PDCP/GTP: Extended KPM
  5. Slice Control: Radio Resource Slicing, Resource Allocation Policy, Slicing Policy, MCS Control
  6. Traffic Control: QoS Control, Flow-level Slicing

Q6. Is the BubbleRAN O-RAN stack multi-vendor?

Yes. BubbleRAN supports a variety and mix-and-match of the vendors that could be simultaneously deployed and operated in the same . BubbleRAN supports the following Open Source 5G Stack: OpenAirInterface, srsRAN, and Open5GS. In addition, BubbbleRAN support the following industrial-grade 5G stack including: Amarisoft 4G/5G and Lite-On All-in-One 5G gNB and 5G O-RDU and O-RU.

Note: BubbleRAN O-RAN stack is Multi-x by design, refering to various dimensions such as RAN vendor, OS, and cloud, addressing the level of heterogeneity and diversity in the modern networks, and it is considered as a natural extension to the Open RAN

Q7. Is the O-RAN 7.2 Fronthaul split supported?

Yes. O-RAN 7.2 fronthaul split is supported for OpenAirInterface and srsRAN 5G stack with Lite-On FlexFI O-RU.

Note: Each vendor implements the fronthaul interface differently and therefore the capabilities differes across the vendors.

Q8. How the A1AP is implemented?

The rApps are implemented as applications running on top of the Non-RT RIC consuming its APIs. These Non-RT RIC is implemented as a Kubernetes Operator exposing its Custom Resource Definitions (CRD) to be consumed by the rApps. Hence, rApps use these CRDs in order to send policies and receive feedback utilizing any Kubernetes clients. The rApps are written in go, python and JavaScript.

Note: R1 is not currently clearly specified. It is shown to include multiple services, such as A1 services among other SMO services. Hence, for R1, we mirrored and extended the A1 as CRDs between non-RT RIC and rApps.

Q9. How the O1 is implemented?

We use an existing open source NetConf clients to realize the O1 interface. The O1 is only available for the Lite-on AIO small-cell and O-RU.

Note: We do not use the O-RAN O1-compliant interfaces to configure and manage OpenAirInterface, srsRAN, and Amarisoft since they do not implement the O1 interfaces (i.e. NetConf Server). Recently, there have been some activities for OAI on the O1 interface but they do not provide all the required features for our SMO.

Nevertheless, this does not limit our SMO in its functions with respect to the NFs or RAN software, but rather improves it for day-2 operations. If you use the cli extract pcap command to extract the PCAP in the containers, you would see some HTTP messages transported for the REST API between the Workload and the Manager containers that might resemble the O1 messages that you are looking for.

In terms of the operations, any change in the YAML file used for the network is propagated automatically to all the affected NFs. In terms of monitoring and fault-tolerance, we use cloud-native software such as Prometheus that are natively integrated with our SMO.

02. DevOps Q&A

Q1. What is the BubbleRAN Telco DevOps Technology?

  1. The BubbleRAN DevOps Technology leverages the best practices to deliver an agile and consistent Cloud-Native Multi-vendor 5G/6G CI/CD/CO platform providing more than 10x faster on-boarding, performance and conformance testing (3GPP and O-RAN), efficiency and delivery cycles targeting telco network functions and applications (5G/6G).

  2. The BubbleRAN DevOps is realized using GitOps operational framework that leverages the best practices used for network functions and application development/integration/testing such as CI/CD/CO and applies them to the infrastructure and multi-vendor 5G/6G network automation.

  3. The BubbleRAN Telco Devs include on-boarding & migration, building & packaging, testing & validation, and releasing artifacts via the BubbleRAN hub.

  4. The BubbleRAN Telco Ops includes provisioning, Operations, Observe, insight & automate that are accessible via a powerful cli & APIs.

  5. Vendors and Developers can now simply develop/customize/on-board their network functions and xApps/rApps as well as their Kubernetes custom resource definitions (CRDs) via the CI/CD/CO platform using the BubbleRAN SDK and CDK.

  6. Operators and Service Providers can leverage multi-x software-based operators to design and deploy a 5G/6G network tailors to a particular use-case requirements and yield the required level of control and observability to the customers.

Terminologies (DevOps definitions and benefits according to Amazon)

  1. CI/CD/CO: Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and Continuous Optimization.
  2. SDK: xApp and rApps software development kit.
  3. CDK: Container development kit.
  4. Operations: design, install, deploy, test, reconfigure, fail-over, backup, restore, upgrade.
  5. Observe: logs, metrics, conditional events, alarm, and alerts.
  6. Insight: health, anomaly, inefficiency.
  7. Automate: scaling, healing, tuning.

Q2. How does the BubbleRAN technology supports 3GPP standard, O-RAN architecture and its components in public and private clouds?

  1. BubbleRAN relies on the 3rd party vendors, such as Amarisoft, OpenAirInterface, srsRAN, and Open5GS among the others, to create and validate an optimized multi-x 5G artifacts in conformance with the 3GPP, O-RAN and public cloud requirements.

  2. BubbleRAN develops cloud-native Open RAN components including MX-RIC as NearRT and Non-RT RIC with xApps and rApps, MX-Operator as SMO/OAM, FCAPS, Observability stack, compliant with the O-RAN specification, where both legacy and emerging Operators and service providers are one click away to mix-and-match one x in multi-x to another one (one vendor to another or one deployment to another).


  1. SMO: Service Management and Orchestration.
  2. RIC: RAN Intelligent Controller.
  3. xApp: NearRT-RIC applications.
  4. rApp: Non-RT-RIC applications.
  5. Multi-x: Multi-vendor, Multi-version, Multi-RAT, Multi-RU, Multi-cloud, Multi-OS, Multi-deployment.

Q3. What is the BubbleRAN MX-Operator?

  1. The BubbleRAN MX-Operator is a new generation of MANO/SMO that fully adheres to the cloud-native principles, while fostering innovation and sustainable deployment for 4G, 5G, and beyond. It elicits an agile and intelligent, dynamic control over variety of vendors and radio stacks (multi-x) coexisting on the same network with built-in observability and at the scale.

  2. MX-Operator bases its foundation upon the Operator Framework to assist or replace the human in the loop, approaching six dimensions including Cloud-Native Intelligent, Closed-Loop Observability, 4C Secure Networking, Sustainability, Agile and Consistent DevOps, and Open Ecosystem, for RAN and its hardware resources, CN, and edge applications.

Q4. Why Telco CI/CD/CO/DevOps matters and how it helps the business?

  1. Telco is moving towards a software-based telco solution empowered with hardware resources (e.g. look aside or inline accelerated cards). Today’s legacy public operators as well as emerging private Operators are calling for a faster and more efficient 5G delivery cycles on daily basis to meet their business application requirements while at the same time lowering the operating costs and energy footprint of the overall network.

  2. By leveraging CI/CD/CO/DevOps, the entire delivery cycle can be automated in an agile, consistent manner helping Operators to deal with network fixes and upgrade. One simple example is an important security patch on a running network or release a new features in a matter of an hour rather than days or months while retaining the service assurance and continuity.

Q5. What are the challenges to adopt a cloud-native 5G/6G solution?

From the technical perspective, one of the main challenges is the transition from VNF to CNF and from physical infrastructure to private/public clouds. This means more software-based 5G/6G solutions that are empowered by the hardware accelerators to sustain the promised performance. This brings another challenges, which is to expose hardware capabilities as a soft and composable resources to the CNF to maximize the efficiency and multiplexing gain.

Q6. Why existing approaches (e.g., Docker-based, or Helm-based) automation is not sufficient for 5G/6G?

A 4G/5G network components by design relies on a heterogeneous, distributed, and synchronous infrastructure resources, namely hardware accelerators, radio units, network functions, and edge apps, that usually provided by different vendors.

A Docker-based or Helm-based automation can only provide level 1 and 2 life-cycle operations and are limited to a single vendor and single infrastructure.

03. company Q&A

Q1. What is BubbleRAN in Nutshell?

  1. BubbleRAN (BR) founded in 2021, as a spin-off of Eurecom.

  2. BR is a software company dedicated to telecom and deliver a range of best-in-class cloud-native 5G/6G O-RAN solutions empowered Edge Computing and Generative AI technologies for R&D and enterprise private 5G use-cases.

  3. BR is helping organization to deploy, operate, and automate a high-performance, reliable, and secure 5G/6G infrastructure at scale that is simple to use, customize and extend.

Q2. What is the BubbleRAN mission?

  1. Our mission is build an open, neutral, and trustworthy Intelligent Connectivity and Open Ecosystem.

Q3. Why BubbleRAN?

  1. Technology First: With no new technology there is no added-value solution and with no research there is no Technology. Our pioneering R&D team strives to accelerate the technological advancements in enabling Intelligent Connectivity across six main dimensions centered at 5G/6G, namely: cloud-native intelligence, Observability, trustworthiness, sustainability, and open ecosystem.
  2. Open 5G/6G Ecosystem Openness is our motto, we rely on Open Source software and contribute to it. We support emerging Telco business models, where all players can join, cooperate, and make profit.
  3. Affordable Turnkey Solutions: We enforce fair pricing and green IT policy when possible to all of our products to meet the current needs of scalability as well as energy and cost efficiency. Our products portfolio is fully integrated and end-to-end.

Checkout our research and contribution to Open Source here

Q4. Where is head-quarter of BubbleRAN?

BubbleRAN is located in French Rivera, south of France.

The postal address is: 450 Route des Chappes, 06410 Biot, France.

Q5. Who is CEO of BubbleRAN and what is the team size?

  1. BubbleRAN is founded in 2021 by Navid Nikaein, the acting CEO/CTO of the company.

  2. Currently (01/06/2024), the BubbleRAN team is composed of 9 people.

Q6. What is the main BuubleRAN Technology?

BubbleRAN develops a complete cloud-native multi-vendor O-RAN stack, all implemented in house. We also work with divers 5G vendors to on-board their 5G stack in our portfolio. Currently we are supporting the following vendors:

  1. Open Source: OpenAirInterface, srsRAN, Open5GS
  2. Industrial-grade: Amarisoft, and Lite-On

Q7. Which markets does BubbleRAN target?

BubbleRAN targets the following markets:

  1. Education and Learning with MX-ORS product. TRL 4-5, 3GPP, O-RAN, Cloud-Native, AI, and Edge computing.

  2. R&D and Measurement with MX-PDK product. TRL 4-7, PoC and MVP.

  3. Private5G with MX-PRO product. TRL7-9, Enterprise Networking and Deployment.


  1. We guarantee a seamless transition from education and R&D to deployment with a consistent UI and tool chain and guaranteed reprehensibility.
  2. The three products are based on the same core technology.

Q7. Can I book a meeting to discuss about my requirements?

To book a meeting, please

  1. First Contact us by email to provide us more information about your requirement and the topics you would like to discuss during the meeting.
  2. Then, after you received our reply, Book a meeting

04. A Question, maybe?